2011/02/04 Sultan Agung Islamic University, Semarang, Indonesia
GENERAL LECTURE OF “THE ROLE OF POLITICS ON BUILDING THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION IN THE DIGITAL ERA”
“Spreading the Idea of Khilafah in the Digital Era”
Prof.Dr. Hassan Ko Nakata, Doshisha university
1. Introduction: Politics, Civilization, Digital Era
* Islamic Politics is “rule of Law”.
* Islamic civilization is a global one.
* “The digital era” means the era in which E-media make people released from the boundary of the ‘territorial nation state’.
* It indicates that we are now living in the age of reemergence of Khilafah.
2. Politics in Digital Era
* E-media like internet make people released from boundary of territorial nation state.
We can communicate each other through internet beyond boundaries of the “territorial nation states”. * It releases people from the information control of the state which makes the dictatorial regime able to deceive people, by the name of democracy and nationalism.
* ‘Territorial nation state’ system is international, namely, it is a cartel of rulers who exploit people. These rulers support each other. Toppling the territorial nation state becomes possible by E-medias which makes people able to unite themselves against the alliance of the rulers.
* Digital era is the age of ‘Globalization’. Globalization is in fact expanding American colonialism to all over the world through E-media of Internet. Now regionalism is arising anew to resist this unfair, unjust exploiting ‘American Globalization’. The most successful case is the EU which has succeeded in liberation of its citizens from boundaries within it, abolition of tariffs, unification of the currency, ie., Euro, and finally election of its president.
* As Europe has been reunited as EU in order to resist ‘American Globalization’, Muslim world should be unite under the banner of Khilafah abolishing boundaries which hinder free movement of people, commodities, money, and information within it, unifying currency, gold Dinar and silver Dirham, and election of Khalifah, the supreme political authority of Ummah.
3. Khilafah as Islamic Politics
* Sunnite Islamic Politics is Khilafah, whose establishment is obligatory based on Ijmāʽ, consensus of Ulama. Nasb al-Imam wajib.
* According to Ibn Hajar al-Haitami (d.1566), Khilafah is not only obligatory but also the most important matter of the religious duties, as well as Ibn Taimiyyah(d.1328) says that it is the most important duty without which both of the religion and the mundane world can’t be maintained.
* In this digital era, in spite that Ulama hardly declare the obligation of establishing Khilafah openly because of the oppression from the anti-Islamic dictatorial regimes, all of us can confirm it in al-Mawsu‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah(45 vol.1), the most voluminous encyclopedia of Fiqh, Islamic jurisprudence, on the Website of the Ministry of Islamic Affairs of Kuwait as well as the one of Ministry of * Islamic Affairs of Saudi Arabia (http://islam.gov.kw/cms/index.php/mousoaa/), (http://feqh.al-islam.com/bookhier.asp?DocID=100)
4. Khilafah as ‘Rule of Law’
* It is not enough to know rules of Khalifah in Fiqh separated from the whole structure of Shari‘ah, we should understand the very nature of Shari‘ah.
* Islamic politics, Khilafah, is Nomo-centralistic contrary Homo-centralistic Western one.
* Khilafah, is not only a rule of law, but the very rule of law, because there is no law-system in the world which can be compared to Islamic law, Shari‘ah, in respect to its stability and predictability. Islamic law system started to be formed around in 8-9 century and had been established around in 12-13 century and has little change since then. It remains unchanging and valid, thus it is still taught from the elementary school to the graduate school of the university in the Muslim world so that rules of Islamic law are by far the better widely-known to Muslim believers than positive laws legislated by the state.
* Consequently, Western Homo-centralistic ‘democracy-oligarchy-monarchy frame-work’ is not suitable for analysis of Khilafah.
* Khilafah is ‘rule of law’ as is clear in comparison with Shiite Imamology.
* Shiite Imamah is typically Rule of Man, because Shiite Imam is divinely appointed and infallible, while Sunni Khalifah is to be elected by men and fallible.
5. Khilafah as Global Civilization
* “Indeed I created on earth Khalifah ,vicegerent.”(Q.2:30)
* The globalism and universalism is essential for Islamic politics, and the singularity of Khalifah only symbolizes the unity and integrity of Dar al-Isla m(Space of Rule of Law) to guarantee the freedom of movement of human beings, commodities, money or capitals, and information. So the abolishment of borders which hinder the movement of the people is the indispensable essential part of Islamic governance.
* Mission of Islam in its complete form is to expand this Dar al-Islam (Space of Rule of Law) to all over the world, the Globe, the Earth.
* Prophetic mission in its complete form was to spread this “Rule of Law” to all over the world even with resort to military force, if possible. Allah says; "Fight those who do not believe in God, nor in the Last Day, and who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, nor do they practice the religion of truth, from among of those who have been given the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah tribute, readily being subdued.”(9:29) And al-Mugirah, a companion of the Prophet, said to the Persian army on the day of battle of Nihavand,; the Prophet who is the Apostle of our Lord ordered "Fight until you worship only Allah or you pay the tax (Jizyah)". ( al-Bukhahri).
* Here we should not confuse between fighting for enforcing Islamic faith and fighting for spreading “Rule of Law”. The Islamic mission is fighting, Jihad, for spreading “Rule of Law”, not for enforcing Islamic faith.
If only the Jizyah tax is paid, fighting is no more allowed, even though they don’t embrace Islam. But fighting becomes inescapable when tax payment is refused. That is, the purpose of Jihad was admission of the Islam governance by tax payment, not conversion to Islam. In other words, spread the Islamic order of “Rule of Law” was the first priority which must be promoted even with military force.
*The Muslim community started to perform their mission toward the whole world after the completion of the revelation to the Prophet Muhammad and the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the banner of Islam. However, what was not allowed to refuse in confronting this mission and was to be forced even by military power was the payment of the Jizyah tax, not conversion to Islam. That is why we can say that the mission of Islam in its complete form is to spread this “Rule of Law” to all over the world even by resort to the military force, though there is no compulsion in the religion.
* Therefore, Khilafah is defined as a political institution established for continuation of the Prophetic mission of spreading “Rule of Law” all over the world. Thus Khilafah is the governance of “Rule of Law”, the most stable divine law in the world, which liberates all the human beings from the rule of men and guarantees the security of life, property, and honor for all the inhabitants, ant this law-governed space is called Dar al-Islam or “House of Islam”, in which Khalifah the head of the Ummah, rules according to Islamic law and plural religious communities coexist enjoying religious self-government.
* Khilafah is rather ‘secular’, anti-totalitarian and pluralistic rule.
6. Conclusion: Spreading the Idea of Khilafah
* In this digital era, it becomes possible to topple down an authoritarian government by people’s power in order to change political regime thanks to E-medias.
* The only thing which we are in lack of is the proper understanding of nature of Khilafah among Ummah Islamiyyah because of their political apathy or unawareness.
* So we should spread the idea of Khilafah among Ummah Islamiyyah to awaken them by all means of E-medias which escape from state control.
* Nowadays the most influential E-media seems to be Video-game, especially young generation on their shoulders the future of Ummah Islamiyyah depends. So we should create Video-game of “Reestablishing Khilafah Spreading Rule of Law to All over the World” in order to nurture their Islamic/political awareness so that we would be ready to establish the true Khilafah, Khilafah Rashidah, in any time when the time of the change comes by divine order of Allah.